New research suggests that a key ingredient to keeping osteoporosis in check may be found in the traditional Mediterranean diet - olive oil. Osteoporosis is a disease where the density and quality of bone is progressively reduced, it affects 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50, and it is estimated that the direct cost of osteoporosis in Europe is around EUR 32 billion a year. This disease is considered to be one of the most common, debilitating and costly chronic diseases in Europe. This is why the results of the Spanish research group are important. The results of their study are to be published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (JCEM), in which they show that consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with olive oil for two years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin concentrations, suggesting a protective effect on bone.